Understanding Baking: The Art and Science of Baking

By Joseph Amendola

The essential-and accessible-guide to the technology of baking
Baking is as a lot a technological know-how as an paintings. that is why, as well as learning uncomplicated concepts and recipes, each baker should also know about the technology that underlies the baking craft. Guided through modern baking and pastry examine and perform, this re-creation of Joseph Amendola's necessary reference supplies readers wisdom that they could practice to their very own baking-whether it truly is selecting the best flour, knowing how diverse leavening brokers paintings, or studying approximately utilizing new baking parts and ingredients to reinforce favourite recipes. Written in a transparent, easy-to-understand kind, knowing Baking is a vital spouse for someone who's fascinated with baking.

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I. Rees, Nicole. II. name. TX683 . A45 2002 641. 8'15—dc21 2002028887 published within the country. 10 nine eight 7 6 five four three 2 1 C O N T E N T S Acknowledgments v Preface vii C H A P T E R 1 Wheat and Grain Flours 1 C H A P T E R 2 Yeast and Chemical Leaveners 33 C H A P T E R three Sugar and different Sweeteners forty seven C H A P T E R four Eggs sixty five C H A P T E R five fat and Oils seventy seven C H A P T E R 6 Milk and Dairy items 89 C H A P T E R 7 Thickeners: Starches, Gelatin, and Gums one hundred and one C H A P T E R eight Chocolate 113 C H A P T E R nine Water 129 C H A P T E R 1 zero Salt a hundred thirty five C H A P T E R 1 1 The Physics of warmth 141 C H A P T E R 1 2 Bread and different Yeast-Risen items 151 C H A P T E R 1 three Laminates a hundred seventy five C H A P T E R 1 four Cake Baking 187 C H A P T E R 1 five Egg Cookery: Custards, Soufflés, Meringues, Buttercream, and Pâte à Choux 207 C H A P T E R 1 6 Pies and brownies 223 C H A P T E R 1 7 Cookies 237 C H A P T E R 1 eight Sugar Syrups and Candymaking 247 Appendix 259 High-Altitude Baking 259 Metric Conversions and different necessary details 260 Weight-Volume Equivalents for universal elements 262 Bibliography 267 Index 273 A C ok N O W L E D G M E N T S i'm indebted to the writers, pastry cooks, and meals scientists whose paintings has trained and encouraged me.

Wheat germ, wheat bran, or flours that include a great deal of them can be refrigerated as they fast develop into rancid. NON-WHEAT FLOURS R Y E F L O U R Rye is one other member of the wild grass relations whose cultivation stretches again into antiquity. Rye is hardier than wheat in tough climates and is usually grown both sides by means of part or in rotation with wheat to make sure a few kind of grain crop. extra rye than wheat was once grown in the course of the center a while, and it's nonetheless a well-liked grain within the chillier ecu climates, particularly the Scandinavian international locations.

Sugars and different Sweeteners sixty one P A L M S U G A R Palm sugar, often referred to as jaggery, may be made of palm bushes or from sugarcane. whilst it's made up of palm bushes, it's always known as gur. This sugar, utilized in India, has a fancy flavor—more like wine than caramel. it may be present in block shape, or in a delicate, whipped honeylike consistency. D A T E S U G A R Date sugar isn't truly sugar in any respect, yet is dehydrated and finely flooring candy dates. The excessive fructose content material makes it a good sweetener, however it can't be used to switch sucrose with no noticeably altering the completed taste and texture of the recipe.

Seventy five Almond paste nine. five Peanut butter eight Appendix 265 W E I G H T - V O L U M E E Q U I V A L E N T S F O R C O M M O N I N G R E D I E N T S (Continued) foodstuff quantity Conversion Nuts oz in 1 cup Sweetened flake coconut three Unsweetened coconut 2. seventy five Flavorings Equivalents Vanilla extract . five ounces ϭ 1 Tbs Vanilla beans four beans ϭ 1 ounces coffee powder four oz. ϭ 1 cup/. 25 oz. ϭ 1 Tbs Malted milk powder four ounces ϭ 1 cup Spices Equivalents Poppy seeds . sixty five ounces ϭ 1 Tbs flooring spices . 25 oz. ϭ 1 Tbs Dried Fruit oz in 1 cup Chopped candied fruit five.

See Fructose Heavy cream eggs as, sixty eight, 195 Frying oils, 84–86 ultra-pasteurized, 93–94 Leaveners (chemical) Fudge, 254, 257 whipped, 98–99 ammonium bicarbonate, forty five Heavy syrup, 253 baking powder, 44–45, forty six, 241, Heavy whipping cream, ninety three 263 Galettes, 236 Hexaploid wheats, 6 baking soda, 43–44, forty five, forty six, 241, Ganache High-altitude baking, 259–260 263 uncomplicated procedure, 124–125 High-ratio blending process, in cake batter, 192 damaged, bringing again, 125–126 198–199 cream of tartar, forty three, forty four, 193, 216, with crème fraîche, ninety six Homogenized milk, ninety two 263 whipped, 126 Honey pH degrees and, forty six Gelatin, 108–110, 262 browning and, sixty two weight-volume equivalents, 263 Gelatinization, starch, sixty three, 103, in cookies, 240 Leaven sponges, 169 104–108, 191 taste of, fifty nine Lecithin, sixty seven, seventy nine, 199 Genoise, 196–197, 205 moisture retention and, sixty three Lemon Germ, nine, eleven, 17 pH point, forty six curd, 210–211 Gliadin, 17, 18, 19, 162, 178 weight-volume equivalents, 263 meringue pie, 233–234 Glucose Hydrogenated fat, eighty, 82–84, 87 pH degrees, forty six browning and, sixty two See additionally Acidic materials in brown sugar, fifty three Levain de pâte, one hundred sixty chemical formulation, 50 Icebox cookies, 242–243 Lime dextrose, fifty seven Induction cooktops, 147 key lime pie, 232–233 enzyme job and, 20 immediate flour, 23 pH degrees, forty six pH degrees, forty six Invertase, 37 See additionally Acidic elements in starches, 104 Invert sugar syrup, forty six, 55–56 Linnaeus, 115–116 sweetness, fifty one Iodate of calcium, 15 Linzer tart, 235 syrup, fifty seven, 240, 252 Iodate of potassium, 15 Lipids Gluten formation, 19, 22, 25, 27, Iodine, in salt, 138 fat, seventy nine 132, one hundred forty, 162, 178, 190–191 Isomalt, sixty one in wheat flour, 17, 20–21 Gluten (high) flour, 154, 262 Italian buttercream, 219 Lollipops, 257 Glutenin, 17, 18, 19, 162, 178 Italian meringue, 217, 254 Glycerol, seventy nine Golden syrup, fifty four, 258 Maillard reactions, 20, 166–167 Graham cracker crumbs, 230, 262 Jaggery (palm sugar), sixty one Maltose, 20, forty-one, 50, fifty one Graham flour, 23 Jelly rolls, 194 Malt syrup, forty six, fifty eight, 263 Granular desk salt, 138–139 Mannitol, sixty one Granulated sugar, 51–52, 240, 263 Maple sugar, 60 Grilling, one hundred forty five Key lime pie, 232–233 Maple syrup, forty six, 60, 263 Grist milling, 9–10 Kneading dough, 19, one hundred forty, 162–163 Margarine, 82–83, 179, 240 Gums, 110–112 Kosher salt, 139 Marjolaine, 216 Gum tragacanth, 110–111 Marshmallows, 108, 256, 257 Mascarpone, ninety seven Lactase, ninety one Melbiose, 18 Half-and-half, ninety three Lactic acid, 164 Meringues, fifty two, 214–218 Halogen gentle, 147 Lactobacilli, 168 French (basic), 215–216 not easy crimson spring wheat (HRS), eight Lactose, 50, fifty one, ninety one, 108 Italian, 217, 254 demanding pink wintry weather wheat (HRW), eight Ladyfingers, 194 lemon meringue pie, 233–234 Index 277 for pies, 217–218 One-stage blending procedure, 199 Pies, 225–234 Swiss, 216–217 Optical isomer, eighty four chiffon, 234 Metric conversions, 260–261 natural eggs, 70 cream (pudding), 233–234 Microwave ovens, 145–146 natural flour, 23, 154 custard, 232–233 Middlings, eleven Osmosis, 39 fruit, 107, 230–232 Milk Osmotolerant yeast, 39–40 galettes, 236 canned, ninety five Oxidation meringue for, 217–218 curdling of, ninety seven in fat, eighty, 81–82, eighty five mousse, 234 dry, ninety five, 191–192 in flour, 10, 14–15 quiche, 212–213, 236 clean, ninety two See additionally muffins pasteurization/homogenization, Pineapple (canned), pH degrees for, 91–92 discomfort au levain, 169 forty six pH degrees for, forty six, ninety three Palm kernel oil, eighty Piping stiff doughs, breaking the items, ninety three Palm sugar, sixty one bag, 243–244 See additionally Buttermilk; Cream Pancakes, forty three Pithiviers, 182 Milk chocolate, 118 Parching, 4–5 Plums, pH degrees for, forty six Millet, 29 Pasteur, Louis, 36 Polysaccharides, forty nine Milling Pasteurization of milk, ninety two Polyunsaturated fat, eighty one, 86, 87 grist, 9–10 Pastry cream, 209, 210, 219 Poolish (pre-ferment), a hundred and sixty curler, 10–11 Pastry cutters, 184 Potassium bromate, as oxidizing Minerals Pastry dough, 177–185 agent, 15 in eggs, sixty seven chilling, 184 Potato flour, 29 in flour, 17, 21, 25 gear for, 180–181 Potato starch, 107, 192, 262 Mixers, bread dough, a hundred and fifty five, 162–163 fat, 180–181 Pot de crème, 211, 212 Moisture retention, sugar and, sixty three flour, 178–179 Pound tarts, 198, 2 hundred Molasses freezing, 184, 185 Powdered sugar.

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